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Biodiversity is the variety

Biodiversity is the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Many people recognize Australia for their exquisite ecosystems such as the Great Barrier Reef. However, in 2016 a massive coral bleaching event occurred and got reported as the worst coral bleaching Australia has ever seen. The reason for the event that wiped out sixty-seven percent of coral reefs: climate change. Specifically, deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions lead to great biodiversity loss in Australia. To concur, Margaret Thatcher,a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,outlined some climate change issues that relate to what is happening in Australia. In her speech to United Nations General Assembly, she said, “A recent study by our British Meteorological Office shows that large- scale deforestation may reduce rainfall and thus affect the climate directly. Past experience shows us that without trees there is no rain, and without rain there are no trees” (Thatcher, 1989). She discusses how deforestation destroys trees and reduces rainfall, which eventually leads to the decline in species because they no longer have habitats. In Australia, deforestation causes much of their wildlife's habitat destruction. To contextualize, Richard Blanco, a civil engineer and public speaker, wrote a poem talking about how the Gulf Motel used to be a great place to enjoy, but the effects of urbanization and modernization have destroyed it. He describes his feelings when he says, “I want to find The Gulf Motel exactly as it was and pretend for a moment, nothing lost is lost” (Blanco, 2012). Indirectly, this quote summarizes how changes to an environment deplete the environment of resources that were once seen as beautiful. In summary, climate change is reducing Australia's biodiversity by provoking detrimental habitual effects, preventing adaptation to new environments, and causing migration difficulties.Biodiversity is the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Many people recognize Australia for their exquisite ecosystems such as the Great Barrier Reef. However, in 2016 a massive coral bleaching event occurred and got reported as the worst coral bleaching Australia has ever seen. The reason for the event that wiped out sixty-seven percent of coral reefs: climate change. Specifically, deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions lead to great biodiversity loss in Australia. To concur, Margaret Thatcher,a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,outlined some climate change issues that relate to what is happening in Australia. In her speech to United Nations General Assembly, she said, “A recent study by our British Meteorological Office shows that large- scale deforestation may reduce rainfall and thus affect the climate directly. Past experience shows us that without trees there is no rain, and without rain there are no trees” (Thatcher, 1989). She discusses how deforestation destroys trees and reduces rainfall, which eventually leads to the decline in species because they no longer have habitats. In Australia, deforestation causes much of their wildlife's habitat destruction. To contextualize, Richard Blanco, a civil engineer and public speaker, wrote a poem talking about how the Gulf Motel used to be a great place to enjoy, but the effects of urbanization and modernization have destroyed it. He describes his feelings when he says, “I want to find The Gulf Motel exactly as it was and pretend for a moment, nothing lost is lost” (Blanco, 2012). Indirectly, this quote summarizes how changes to an environment deplete the environment of resources that were once seen as beautiful. In summary, climate change is reducing Australia's biodiversity by provoking detrimental habitual effects, preventing adaptation to new environments, and causing migration difficulties.Habitual destruction occurs as a result of climate change. A habitat is the natural home or environment of an animal, and climate change destroys the place that means the most to these species, especially in Australia. For example, Corey Bradshaw, who works in Global Ecology at Flinders University of South Australia,came to the conclusion that, “In Victoria, for instance, only approximately 30% of the original native vegetation remains, and some vegetation types, such as grasslands and open woodlands, have been reduced by more than 99% since European settlement” (Ritchie et al., 2013). Deforestation is the most prevalent problem in Victoria, and it is a major cause of climate change due to the decreasing number of trees available to capture increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. This wipes out habitual sites such as grasslands and woodlands, leaving animals such as kangaroos and wallabies without a home. To coincide with Bradshaws research,  Evans, Watson, Fuller, Venter, Bennett, Marsack, Possingham, and others on Bradshaws research team mapped the distributions of eight major threats to Australia's wildlife. conclusion that, “The most recent International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List describes that at least 38% of all known species facing extinction in the near term. Habitat loss is the most pressing threat to species persistence at the global scale, and frequently at the national scale” ( Evans et al., 2011). The warming caused by climate change slows down plants growth, and it causes habitats to shift and even more carbon dioxide gets released into the atmosphere. That loss of habitats leaves species without anywhere to take shelter, which decreases many of their populations in Australia. With all of these plants and animals dying, Australia, which was once a beautiful land with many exotic species, is finding it’s forest lacking biodiversity because so many of their species have gone extinct. In summary, the destruction of habits as a result of climate change such as deforestation raise extinction rates for most of Australia’s wildlife. Next, adaptation to new environments as a result of climate change is difficult for many species of animals, resulting in their extinction. This relates to the previous paragraph because the need for adaptation to new environments stems from the loss of a species old habitat. To support this, The Climate Reality Project states on their website, “About 30 percent of corals on the reef have died since the 2016 mass bleaching event” (How Is Climate Change, 2019). Coral bleaching occurs when the water is too warm, which is an effect of global warming. Australia’s coral reefs are able to stay alive after they get bleached, but it adds extra stress on them and increases their mortality rates. Most of the time the corals cannot adapt to or handle the extra stress, and this results in their population steadily decreasing. To concur, The World Wide Fund for Nature is an organization that works to raise money to protect Australia's wildlife from climate change. They came to the conclusion that “With the speed of climate change we are experiencing already, it’s often not possible for a species to adapt quickly enough to keep up with its changing environment” (Impacts of Global Warming). Many animals in Australia have very specific climate conditions they need to stay in or they will suffer and possibly become extinct. For example, numbats are only found in Western Australia, and their habitats consist of Eucalypt woodlands where old trees are used as their homes. When deforestation occurs, their homes disappear and they need to attempt to find a new home. Since this species only live in hollow trees, the removal of their homes leave them attempting to relocate to a place that will keep them safe. However, they cannot adapt to an area without trees because that is where they retreat to hide from predators. Their species is already considered endangered, and the effects of climate change are increasing their mortality rate. Australia's climbing extinction rates contribute to their lack of biodiversity, and their ecosystems that were once booming with life have been diminished to a few native populations. To finalize, climate change makes it too difficult for species to adapt to a new environment, causing them to become endangered or extinct. Next, because of climate change, species are unable to migrate when their habitat is no longer suitable. After deforestation and other climate change factors destroy animal habitats and they cannot adapt to the new environment, their final option is to move to a new space to live. However, the destruction from climate change occurs too quickly for some species, so they end up becoming extinct. For other animals in Australia, factors such as high of temperatures due to climate change makes them unable to migrate because of the sweltering conditions. To concur, the Department of the Environment and Energy from the Australian Government published climate projections that stated, “Scientists expect climate change to cause changes to the abundance and geographic range of many species, restrict or alter species movement and interfere with their life cycles” (Climate Change Impacts In, 2007). Since climate change is destroying the land all around these animals, it becomes difficult for them to migrate to a new home because they are stricken with illness and other effects that climate change has on them. The diversity of these species in Australia's ecosystem allows different populations to interact and flourish, but the obstructed movement of these animals from climate change is diminishing Australia’s ecosystems one by one. In accordance with the climate change migration projections, staff writers from UPI Space Daily published an article about what occurs when climate change restricts migration for species in Australia. In that article, they wrote, “If dry seasons are to become hotter and rainfall events more unpredictable, habitats may become depleted of available pasture for grazing and water holes may dry up. This may result in starvation and failed reproduction ... or possible death due to dehydration for those species that are less mobile” (Writers, 2008). Animals that are native to Australia realize when their environment is running out of the resources that they need to stay alive. However, many of these species realize too late that their habitat has become unsuitable, and trying to find a new place to live is difficult when many of them have not eaten or drinker properly because of climate change destroying their grazing lands and water holes. Uprooting these animals entire lives to go to a foreign land is often stressful for them, and many die on route to a new home. The lack of migration opportunities available because of climate change causes many animals to become extinct, and Australia's biodiversity continues to decrease. Altogether,  climate change limits migration of species when they cannot live in their habitat anymore, causing the extinction of species. On the other hand, those who do not believe in climate change says the leading cause of biodiversity decrease is pollution. To support their argument, the Coasts and Marine environment reports both describe the impact of marine debris on coastal and marine fauna by saying, “Debris may directly entangle fauna, such as in the Gulf of Carpentaria where an estimated 5000–15,000 turtles become ensnared in discarded fishing nets each year. Shorebirds, turtles, and invertebrates may ingest and accumulate plastics” (Cresswell, 2016). The pollution found in oceans and shores of Australia is increasing the mortality rate of the native species, and that is what is decreasing Australia’s biodiversity. Although pollution does decrease Australia’s biodiversity, it is not the leading cause. To refute those claims, Amanda Beckrich has spent countless years researching agricultural science and biology, and she came to the conclusion that “sea level rise resulting from climate change (i.e., the thermal expansion of the oceans and melting of land-based glaciers) destroys habitats such as that of the Bramble Cay melomys” (Beckrich, 2016). Around February 20th 2019, news flooded Australia that the bramble cay melomys officially became extinct. They are the first mammal population to go completely extinct as a result of climate change. When habitats are demolished by the effects of climate change, species die off and biodiversity decreases at a faster pace than pollution because there are fewer programs preventing and helping to stop climate change in Australia. All in all, pollution does not decrease Australia’s biodiversity as much as climate change does. Overall, climate change reduces habitats for species, prevents migration, and does not allow for adaptation to new environments. A possible solution is the Forest Landscape Restoration which members of Australia’s community put together to help combat the harmful effects of climate change. The main goal of this program is to increase the number of healthy trees in an area to provide homes for species whose habitats got wiped out by deforestation. Becoming a member of this program or even just giving donations for supplies can help bring back the biological productivity of an area to achieve benefits for Australia's wildlife. An example of a task this organization does is cleaning watersheds/rivers/lakes that are pollution ridden so marine wildlife have homes and other animals have a place to find food or drink. A limitation to this is low-income communities in Australia have the majority of forest destruction and habitat loss, but they cannot financially provide the supplies necessary for restoring landscapes and forests. Also, this course of action does not always succeed, and many forests and ecosystems are unable to be restored. For the second solution, hydrofluorocarbons in refrigerators can be phased out and replaced with substitutes such as propane and ammonia. Hydrofluorocarbons have the capacity to warm the atmosphere at a greater rate than carbon dioxide, which aids the destruction of habitats and increases the mortality rate of many species and plummets Australia’s biodiversity even lower. Despite that, the process of phasing out HFC’s will take years meanwhile these harmful pollutants to the atmosphere still lay in almost every home. Also, it will be costly for most communities to replace all these refrigerators with new fuel, and going off of what was mentioned earlier, many areas of Australia will be unable to receive this new refrigerator due to lack of funding. To finalize, the issue of climate change limits the growth of Australia’s biodiversity to the extent where climate change is an unavoidable problem in Australia. Deforestation and carbon dioxide are the main factors that dismantle the ecosystems and native species found in Australia. In conclusion, climate change is reducing Australia's biodiversity by provoking detrimental habitual effects, preventing adaptation to new environments, and causing migration difficulties.